The past month's been manic, so sorry for the late arrival of this post. This unit is the last in my trilogy of Perry plastic American regiments (see also the 3rd New Hampshire and the 10th Massachusetts). I painted these South Carolina chaps a good few months ago, but I failed to sort out the flag and then forgot about them. I've wanted to paint up some South Carolina regulars since I visited Charleston some years ago and saw the uniform in the local museum (see here). However, I couldn't find any figures with the suitable caps until the Perry plastics came along. I chose the 2nd regiment because it features as a 20-figure unit in the Savannah scenario, the figures for which I've been building up over the past couple of years or so. Also, the handy uniform guide in the Perry box said that the 2nd regiment may have had some men in white hunting shirts, and I thought a mix of white shirts and blue regimental coats would look quite smart.
The 2nd South Carolina Regiment was raised in June 1775, one of five regiments authorised by the state's government (so these units did not form part of the Continental line). The 2nd's war service was largely limited to actions in its own state, although detachments seem to have served in Florida. The regiment was part of the force that successfully defended Fort Moultrie at the Battle of Sullivan's Island in June 1776. Sullivan's Island was in the entrance to Charleston's harbour and its successful defence denied the British fleet its intended capture of Charleston. The regiment saw action at the American/French attack on Savannah in 1779 and the following year again took part in the defence of Charleston against British attack. This time the British were successful and the regiment passed into captivity in May 1780.
I have a bit of a backlog of completed unit again so there will be more loyalist stuff after Christmas. In the meantime, a very happy Christmas to all readers.
My last two posts have been about loyalist units and I mentioned that I've been doing some thinking on how to build up the loyalist part of my collection. So I thought I'd set out my plans - this post might be useful to some people and I'd certainly appreciate thoughts and suggestions from others. Most AWI gamers will know the basis "rules of thumb" for loyalist uniforms. Many of the loyalist troops who were properly uniformed started out in green coats and then changed to red ones around 1777/78. The uniform coats probably didn't have button hole lace, although some of the larger units did in their "red coat" incarnations. For that reason, it's common for gamers to use "Continental" figures for loyalists rather than "British" ones. Many units seem to have worn round or slouch hats. Some of loyalist units adopted a light infantry-style of dress, with leggings or full gaiters and caps. Gaitered trousers/overalls seem to have been very popular, as opposed to breeches and half-gaiters.
With the figures currently available in 25mm you need to make a few compromises. For example, if you want 25mm infantry in unlaced coats and full gaiters, like the Don Troiani Prince of Wales Volunteers here, then you're currently out of luck (I suppose you could use the Perry Hessian garrison troops, with a bit of conversion work). Ditto if you want cut-down uniform coats, Indian leggings and round hats, like the Don Troiani Jessup's Corps of Loyalists here (you'd need to use Perry Saratoga figures and do some head swaps). However, if you want unlaced coats, overalls and slouch hats, like the Don Troiani King's American Regiment here, then I think there are two ways to go at present: Perry plastic Continentals with hats from the British plastic set or the Fife & Drum British Guards figures (which don't have lace). The former option isn't ideal because only half the Perry plastic Continentals wear overalls. If you want figures that aren't in a marching pose, then it becomes more difficult and my solution is to use the Perry British plastics, even though they have lace. I'll also mention King's Mountain Miniatures, as they have a massive range of separate heads which include several sets that are suitable for loyalists. A further option is to be mega-creative and mix up all kinds of metal figures, as Steve Jones did with his South Carolina loyalists.
So the decisions I've made are within the contraints outlined above. I admit to not being particularly fussed about button hole lace - what's more important to me is the overall look of the unit and whether the head gear and poses suit the look I'm after. I've also tried to double-up some units to increase their use, and that usually requires further compromise on particular uniform details. The list isn't finite - for example, I've yet to decide what to do about Butler's Rangers and the infantry element of the Britih Legion. As usual, references to battles are to the 4 Caliver/"British Grenadier!" scenario books. Also worth a mention is Steve Jones' "Rebellion" supplement for the "Black Powder" rules, which contains an excellent section on loyalists and their uniforms.
First, there are the well-known units for which particular figures have been made by Perry.
- Queen's Rangers (Brandywine, Monmouth, Germantown, Whitemarsh, Springfield, Gloucester Point). 20 figures will see you through most scenarios.
- Volunteers of Ireland (Camden and Hobkirk's Hill).
Secondly, there are a number of other units which I propose to model with (largely) Perry Miniatures' plastic figures. These vary in size and follow the units involved in the scenarios. There's nothing wrong in my view with painting up 24 figures in green faced red coats, or red faced blue coats, and having them stand in as generic loyalists for each and every scenario. That would obviously save on money and painting time. But I'm rather anal when it comes to the AWI and I appear to have accumulated several boxes of Perry plastics, so I'm going to have a stab at painting up several units which try, insofar as is possible and practicable, to be reasonably close to what the units may have looked like. I haven't included "loyalist militia", which appear in a couple of scenarios (which I painted up last year).
- green coats faced blue, tricornes: Emmerich's Chasseurs (Indian Field, Hudson Forts), Prince of Wales' Volunteers (Newport) - 12 figures; Perry plastic Continentals; see here.
- green coats faced white, round hats: King's American Regiment early uniform (Hudson Forts, Newport) - 30 figures; Perry plastic British.
- green coats faced orange, tricornes: King's Orange Rangers (Hudson Forts) - 12 figures; Perry plastic British; see here.
- green coats faced red with green lapels and slouch hats: King's Carolina Rangers (Savannah) - 8 figures; Perry plastic Continentals with British slouch hats.
- green coats faced red, tricornes and Saratoga caps for the light company: King's Royal Regiment of New York (Oriskany) - 28 figures; Perry plastic British.
- green coats faced red, slouch/round hats: Loyal American Regiment (Hudson Forts) - 16 figures; Perry plastic Continentals with a mix of British and American hats.
- red coats faced blue, white slouch hats: De Lancey's Regiment (Eutaw Springs; Savannah) - 18 figures; Perry plastic British.
- red coats faced blue, slouch hats: New York Volunteers (Hudson Forst, Hobkirk's Hill, Eutaw Springs), North Carolina Volunteers (Stono Ferry, Savannah, Camden) - 16 figures; Perry plastic British.
- red coats faced blue, tricornes: New Jersey Volunteers (Springfield) - 12 figures, Perry plastic British.
- red coats faced olive green, tricornes: King's American Regiment later uniform (Hobkirk's Hill) - 16 figures; Perry plastic British.
- red coats faced green, slouch/round hats: Queen's Loyal Rangers (Bennington) - 12 figures; Perry plastic Continentals with a mix of British and American hats and some metal militia.
- red coats faced yellow, slouch/round hats: South Carolina Royalists (Stono Ferry; Hobkirk's Hill) - 16 figures; Perry plastic Continentals with mix of British and American hats. [I might copy Steve and mix in a few metal militia types.]
I'm sure some will disagree with the above. For example, should the King's Royal Regiment of New York have red or blue facings? You can read a discussion about that on the re-enacted unit's website. I decided to follow James Kochan and go with red, largely because I love the Don Troiani painting of the Battle of Oriskany which shows members of the regiment in light infantry caps and red facings. There's a fair amount of work to be done in painting up the units listed above. If I run out of plastics I might have to treat myself to some Fife & Drum Guards. I'm already working on the King's Carolina Rangers and next in line will be the New Jersey Volunteers.
This is the infantry component of the loyalist corps raised in 1777 by the German soldier Andreas Emmerich. For the cavalry troops see my previous post here. Emmerich raised a rifle company, a light company and three companies of "chasseurs". As a representation of all these infantry troops I decided to use the Perry hard plastic Continental infantry rather than mess around with British light infantry figures or attempt conversions. In any event, the uniform is similar to that of the Lefferts painting, save that these plastic figures don't have full gaiters. A lot of illustrations of loyalist infantry show the men in either full gaiters or Indian leggings; however, as yet there aren't any Perry AWI figures you can use to represent this uniform other than the metal Saratoga British, which of course have their particular style of headwear. The two officers are metal figures. The one in front, who is supposed to be Emmerich himself (at the age of 40/41 he has a bit of grey hair) is from Foundry; the chap in the second row waving his hand is by Perry Miniatures.
I wrote in my previous post that Emmerich's Chasseurs were disbanded in late 1779 due to internal friction and recruitment/retention problems. After the war Emmerich returned to England and in 1789 he published "The Partisan in War", his thoughts on the American Revolution and the use of light infantry (see a pdf here). He then had plans to publish a five-volume autobiography entitled "Histoire
Memorable de la vie du Lieutenant-Colonel-Anglois Andre Emmerich", but that didn't progress very far. Emmerich had grown up in Hanau, a town which from 1736 (the year before Emmerich was born) formed part of the state of Hesse-Kassel.
In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was disbanded by Napoleon after his victory at Austerlitz and the Confederation of the Rhine was created in its place. The following year, Hesse-Kassel became part of the new Kingdom of Westfalia, over which Napoleon's brother Jérôme was appointed king. Emmerich, always in pursuit of adventure despite being in his 70s, became involved in an
insurrection against the new French regime. He was captured in June 1809 and executed by a
firing squad in Kassel on 19 July, 1809.
In terms of scenarios, Emmerich's Chasseur appear in units of 4 figures for the Hudson Forts and 12 for Indian Field (in addition to 4 cavalry). However, I also intend to use these figures for another loyalist outfit, the Prince of Wales' Volunteers, who appears as a 12-figure unit in the Newport scenario (August 1778). The PoWV are also recorded as having green faced blue coats, at least in the early years of the war. The paintings by Don Troiani have the PoWV with white rather than black cross belts and white tape on the tricornes (see here and here). I confess I should have painted white lace on the hats, not least because that's a good way of distinguishing between loyalist and patriot troops. I've been giving loyalists a lot of thought and research recently, as I'll be focussing on them over the next couple of months. If anyone's interested, I can post a list of the units I intend to do, with notes on figure and uniform choices. Currently on the painting desk are the East Florida Rangers (mounted) and its successor unit, the King's Carolina Rangers (foot). The latter will be the last Perry plastic Continental infantry figures I paint for a while.
Captain Andreas Emmerich (sometimes "Emmerick") was a professional soldier from Germany and a veteran of the Seven Years War, who early in the AWI proposed to the British that he raise a corps in Germany for service in America. Those proposals were rejected and Emmerich then lobbied General Clinton instead, who allowed Emmerich to form a more modest unit of 100 "marksmen" from men currently serving in various loyalist regiments, under Emmerich's command. This was in August 1777. The unit's performance in the attack on the Hudson Forts later that year was impressive and Emmerich was allowed to expand his force. So the following year, Emmerich added two troops of
dragoons, one light infantry company, one rifle company, and three "chasseur"
companies (presumably also infantry or mounted infantry) to his original company of riflemen. Emmerich was promoted to lieutenant colonel, in charge of what was effectively a "legion" but which is referred to in contemporary documents as a "corps of chasseurs". A recruitment notice has survived, and it reads as follows:
To all Gentlemen Volunteers,
By Virtue of a Warrant from his Excellency Sir HENRY CLINTON, K. B. and
Commander in Chief of all his Majesty's Forces in North-America, bearing Date
the 30th of April, 1778.
Lieut. Col. Commandant EMMERICK,
Is now raising Six Companies of Foot, to consist of 360 Rank and File, and
Two Troops of Light Dragoons, to consist of 100 Men, who will receive
immediately their Bounty before attested; their Pay, Provision, and Cloathing
regular, and agreeable to the King's Allowance, without clipping or deduction.
To any that bring Horses fit for the Service, the Price will be paid
immediately. ------- For which Purpose proper Officers will be stationed in
New-York, on Long-Island, Staten-Island, Philadelphia, and elsewhere. The
Refugees who are single Young Men, and out of Employ, should particularly
manifest their Zeal on this Occasion, and shew that they are in Reality Friends
to his Majesty. Whoever knows EMMERICK, knows that his Soldiers live like Gentlemen, and that
all such as behave well, he treats like a Brother.
God Save the King
The force went on raids around New York and elements of the force seem to have been present at the battle of Monmouth. What happened internally to the corps during 1778 and early 1779 isn't clear, but the officers in the legion seem to have fallen out with Emmerich and/or each other. Desertion became a bad problem and the corps was dissolved on Clinton's orders. Some of the cavalry troopers were sent to serve with the British Legion and others together with the infantry went to other well-known regiments such as the Volunteers of Ireland, De Lancey's Brigade and the Queen's Rangers. Emmerich remained in service, but without his own command. I'll add some details about his further adventures in my next post.
These are the Eureka Continental dragoon figures again, which I've used to model the mounted element of the corps. I see no reason why these figures can't also be used for loyalist units and I'm already working on a second one (the East Florida Rangers). The mounted troop of Emmerich's Chasseurs only appears in the Indian Field scenario, as a 4-figure unit. So Emmerich's Chasseurs are never going to be a priority for an AWI wargamer, but it's not often one has an excuse to paint up loyalist cavalry and it doesn't take long to do 4 figures. And they look pretty. The uniform of a dark green coat faced dark blue with black tricorne follows an illustration by Lefferts (see here). When the unit was first raised in 1777, it is probable that the recruits wore the uniforms of the regiments from which they were drafted - so green coats faced white, blue of red as was customary for loyalist troops in the war's early years. It appears that new uniforms were obtained in autumn 1778, possibly red coats as the loyalists began to be re-clothed into red coats around this time. I liked the combination of green and blue so decided to go with Lefferts. I followed this uniform through for the infantry element of the corps, which I'll write about in my next post.
The 2nd regiment of Continental Light Dragoons was commissioned by Congress in December 1776, with Colonel Elisha Sheldon in command (the regiment was also known as "Sheldon's Horse") and with men recruited largely from Connecticut at first, and then New Jersey and Massachusetts. The regiment rarely acted a whole, and instead elements and/or troops were allocated to various duties as required. In addition to carrying out reconnaisance, patrolling, supply-raiding and courier activities, the regiment was present at many of the larger battles of the war: Trenton, Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, Saratoga, Whitemarsh and Yorktown. At the end of the Saratoga campaign, the 2nd escorted General Burgoyne to Boston after his surrender. In 1781 the regiment was re-organised along "legion" lines, so it combined mounted troops with dismounted infantry. George Washington's chief of intelligence, Benjamin Tallmadge, was an officer in the 2nd Dragoons.
These are more figures from the Eureka Continental Dragoons range. I've been painting a lot of the "ragged" figures as militia, Legions and other irregular troops recently (see here for all previous American cavalry posts), but you can of course use the non-ragged, "uniformed" figures as Continental Dragoons themselves. Since the Eureka cavalry were released the Perries came out with their own American cavalry, and they have made specific figures for each of the 4 Continental Dragoon regiments. I don't have any of those yet, but will probably use the Perry 1st and 4th Dragoons figures. In the meantime, however, I'm more than happy to continue with the Eureka range. So these are all the smarter Eureka figures in uniform coats with brass helmets. The 2nd Dragoons appear to have worn dark blue coats faced white or buff and brown/buff breeches. I wasn't entirely sure whether to paint the helmets brass or black; I went for the former because it looked better. Also, I decided not to reverse the coat of the trumpeter. I'd already decided to put him on a white horse and I thought that reversing the coat would make him look a bit too...white. In the published "British Grenadier!" scenarios, the 2nd Dragoons appear only in the Whitemarsh scenario, as a 4-figure unit. I thought I'd paint up 6 as I like to have cavalry units of at least 6 figures even where that's a bit more than the scenarios require. The rather fancy flag is by Adolfo Ramos. The 2nd had a blue regimental flag, as shown here, and then a separate flag for each squadron (coloured green, red and white). The central device, repeated on all of the flags, depicts ten bolts of lightning emanating outwards from a winged thundercloud. The Latin motto underneath is thought to be an appreviated form of "Patria Concita Fulminent Nati", which roughly translates as "the fatherland exhorts its sons to strike like lightning". The regiment had a further national flag that was captured by Tarleton in 1779.
There is an excellent website of the re-enacted 2nd Dragoons here. This site is top class and really worth a look - it even has a Powerpoint presentation! It was the source of much of the information in this post, particularly on the flag. Next up will be more Eureka cavalry, but this time painted as loyalists.
6 figures. Painted September 2015. Flag by Adolfo Ramos.
Just a short post to remind people that the new volume of AWI scenarios is available from Caliver Books (or On Military Matters in the US). This collection has been compiled by the usual "British Grenadier!" team of "Eclaireur", Brendan Morrissey and John Ingham, but it should be usable with any AWI rules. I can't really write an objective review of this book, given that my mates wrote it and I provided many of the accompanying photographs. AWI supremo Steve Jones has a review on his blog here. However, while I saw the proofs some months ago (to show me where photos were needed) my hard copy arrived this morning and I thought I'd add some observations.
First, it has some great photos! A conscious effort was made to provide photos that featured units relevant to each scenario, although I wasn't able to set up the scenarios themselves. That said, there are a couple of pics from the Stono Ferry playtest (see here) and a game the Perries put on of Weitzel's Mill. The Perries provided some further more generic photos too. Setting something up for the Cuddalore scenario proved challenging, given that it is set in 1783, outside a town on the east coast of India, and involves British and Honourable East India Company forces attacking an entrenched French and Mysorean army. All I could think of was gathering together some Foundry Darkest Africa Baluchi figures and AWI French infantry and using some Sudanese-type buildings from Touching History to suggest troops marching through the streets of Cuddalore on their way to the fortifications outside. Not a bad bit of improvisation, I thought!
Secondly, the scenarios themselves are a good mix of "theatres" and scales. In all 4 books in this series, one aim has been to ensure that each of the main periods of the war is represented and that there are large and smaller-scale actions. The books also often have a "what if" scenario and/or one that is set outside of the AWI mainstream. So in the 3rd scenario book, for example, there is the attack on Fishguard of 1797 and the Deluxe edition of the "British Grenadier!" rules has a scenario from each of the F&IW and the War of 1812. In this 4th volume, the "hypothetical" scenario is the attack on the Dorchester Heights near Boston that Howe planned at the beginning of March 1776. The attack was called off as bad weather meant the assault force could not be ferried to its starting line. This is a middle-size scenario, with 10 or so units per side, that gives the British player another crack at a Bunker Hill style assault. The full list of scenarios, with some thoughts on the ones not already mentioned, is as follows:
1. Dorchester Heights, March 1776.
Pell's Point, October 1776 - a 1:10 ratio battle, where 4 battalions of Continentals try to hold up a force of British light infantry and Hessians.
August 1777 - a large scenario involving 2 separate tables for the main action and the Brunswicker relief column; use here of some more exotic troops, such as Brunswick dragoons, a baggage train and Canadian auxiliaries.
4. Whitemarsh, December 1777 - historically, this was essentially a series of skirmishes between elements of Washington's and Howe's armies, before the latter decided to withdraw. In the scenario, the full orbats are provided so a massive British attack of 3 divisions can be made.
Creek, March 1779 - a small-scale, 1:10 "Southern" action, with the 71st Foot, lightbobs and loyalist militia attacking NC militia. Some interesting units to model here, such as the loyalist Florida Rangers.
6. Stono Ferry, June 1779 - see my playtest report here.
June 1780 - back in New Jersey, Hessians, loyalists and British Guards under General Knyphausen attack a large American force.
8. Weitzell's Mill, March 1781 - can the militia buy enough time to enable Continental battalions to escape from Tarleton and Cornwallis' superforce of the 23rd, 33rd and 71st Foot regiments and a 32-figure Von Bose? This looks like a quick, exciting game.
October 1781 - this is the storming of Redoubts 9 and 10 by French troops and American light infantry. The scenario allows for a British counter-attack to re-take the forts, which Cornwallis didn't bother with on the night.
10. Cuddalore, June
1783 - I'm sure this would look pretty spectacular. I wonder if the Perries could be persuaded to release HEIC infantry and Mysorean troops...
Each scenario comes with historical notes, full orbat and terrain details, a colour map, some uniform guidance, tactical tips and, where required, special rules. Also included are some colour paintings by the late Bob Marrion (whose illustrations will be much missed in future Caliver publications) and a points system for "British Grenadier!".
By way of a coda to my trio of French colonels, this is my completed unit of combined French chasseurs. Back in 2011 I painted some skirmishers and a couple of officers, using figures from the Eureka Miniatures French Revolutionary Wars range. I also started work on a close-order unit using the Perry chasseur figures. I completed two 6-figure stands and was painting a third when I realised I had lost one figure - so my third stand only had five figures instead of six. I decided not to buy a new pack just for that one figure on the basis that eventually it would turn up. Of course it didn't turn up, and four years later, at this year's Salute, I decided to bite the bullet and buy another pack. Naturally, a couple of weeks later I found that I actually already had another unopened pack which I'd completely forgotten about. Then after painting that pack and the missing one figure I found myself with five figures spare, so I thought I'd paint up a 4-figure stand as well. And now I have one figure left over. As a result of all this farting around, this unit has grown beyond what I intended and, at 28 figures, is the second-largest unit in my AWI collection (the largest is my 32 figure Black Watch).
There are 5 regiments represented here, differentiated by the colour of their facings: Armagnac (light blue), Viennois (grey), Auxerrois (black), Gatinais (violet) and Royal Deux-Ponts (blue faced yellow). I chose the Royal Deux-Ponts because I wanted a non-white uniformed regiment and I hadn't painted these guys before; I almost decided on the Dillon regiment instead, which I painted a while ago. I like how with French combined units of chasseurs and grenadiers you can have very colourful mixes of troops - it's not all about white coats. The way I painted the white coats is the same as with previous French infantry: undercoat with Army Painter "Uniform Grey" spray (an almost exact match with Coat d'arms "Uniform Grey 525" which I use for touching up); then first highlight of Foundry "Arctic Grey 33A"; second highlight of Coat d'arms "Light Grey 211"; third highlight of Coat d'arms "Tank Light Grey 526"; then finally pure white (any brand that is to hand). I like the shading and highlighting effects that this combination produce, although I appreciate the "look" won't be to all tastes. I think the chasseurs are supposed to have hunting horns on their coat turnbacks - I did these for the earlier figures that I painted, but forgot on the later ones.
In terms of French chasseurs in the "British Grenadier!" scenarios, the position is somewhat complex. The chasseur and grenadier companies of French infantry regiments did not operate in formal combined battalions like their British counterparts, but seem to have been thrown together in ad hoc units as the need arose. For Savannah, you have 3 units of 6, 8, and 10 figures. So that's 24 in total, and you can re-arrange into different sized units if you wish. For La Vigie, you have 1 unit of 18 figures. The storming of the redoubts at Yorktown has 3 units of combined chasseurs and grenadiers from 3 parent regiments (Royal Deux Ponts, Soissonais and Gatinois), each of 18 figures. What I'll do for Yorktown is to use these chasseurs here as 1 of those units and then paint up 36 charging Perry figures, mainly grenadiers but with a base of chasseurs thrown in. You need lots of grenadiers for Savannah (24 in fact), so they are next on the French list.
28 figures. Painted August 2011 and August 2015.
The chasseurs with their 2 officers and 8 skirmishers
If you want to know what this photo is all about, you'll need to buy the 4th AWI/"British Grenadier!" scenario book from Caliver - out now!
Curt von Stedingk (1746-1837) was a Swedish aristocrat with impeccable military credentials. His maternal grandfather was Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin, one of Frederick the Great's field marshals. Von Stedingk first experienced soldiering at the age of 13, as an ensign in the personal regiment of the Crown Prince of Sweden and served in the even Years War (on the other side to his grandfather). After time at university he joined one of the French army's "foreign regiments", the Royal Suédois. This regiment had been created in 1690 from Swedish prisoners taken during the War of the League of Augsburg. It recruited in Swedish Pomerania and so many of the rank and file were of German extraction, but the regiment was only allowed to have Swedish officers. Von Stedingk became colonel of the regiment in March 1784. (The French army's foreign regiments were disbanded in 1791 and the Royal Suédois was reorganised as the 89th Line.)
Von Stedingk arrived in America in 1778 with the first French force under the command of Admiral D'Estaing. After the failure to capture Newport in August, the fleet moved off to the Caribbean and in December the French fleet under D'Estaing began a series of attacks on British possessions. The French seized first Saint Vincent in June 1779 and then Grenada, which was captured on 3 July. Von Stedingk appears to have been present either at the seizure of Grenada or the fleet action between D'Estaing and Admiral John Byron that followed. At the seige of Savannah in October he commanded the left column of the attacking force. His column lost some cohesion during the advance, which was undertaken under severe fire, but the French managed to capture a section of the British earthworks. Apparently von Stedingk managed to plant an American flag in the British trenches, but he was then wounded and a counter-attack by grenadiers and Royal Marines forced the French to retreat. After the unsuccessful siege on Savannah, D'Estaing and his force returned to France.
George Washingting recognised von Stedingk's contribution to the war effort by making him a founding member of the Society of the Cincinnati. This society, the brainchild of Major General Henry Knox, was founded in 1783 to maintain links and friendship between officers of the Continental Army. Other original members also included Louis de Nouailles. Unfortunately, it seems that the King of Sweden, Gustav III, told von Stedingk that he could not wear the insignia of the Society as the award cam from people who had revolted against their king.
Von Stedingk remained in the army and participated in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788-90, a rather inconclusive affair which Gustav III began to distract attention from domestic issues (he was assassinated in 1792), and was promoted to major general. He then served as Sweden's ambassador to Russia before taking to the battlefield again in the Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809. That war has some important effects on Sweden: Finland was lost and fell within the Russian Empire, and King Gutav IV was deposed and the House of Bernadotte became the new ruling family of Sweden. Von Stedingk was the commander of the Swedish army at Leipzig in 1813 (which only participated in the action rather late in the day), following which he was promoted to field marshal. He died in 1837, aged 90.
The uniform took a bit of research. From about 1750 onwards the regiment seems to have had dark blue coats with buff or yellow-brown facings, so resembling traditional Swedish infantry uniforms. I found conflicting information about the colour of the blue - whether dark blue or a lighter colour. In the end I went with a more medium/light blue, in part because the uniform would then resemble that of the Royal Deux-Ponts regiment and I could therefore use this figure as the commander of that regiment as well. The Perry sculpt looks a bit older and more portly than you'd expect of a 35 year old. I gave von Stedingk a powdered wig because that's what he wears in the various portraits of him that I've found.
Louis Marc Antoine de Noailles was born on 17 April 1756 into an established, very well-known aristocratic family. The family held a dukedom, created in 1663, and it produced a long line of soldiers, which included several marshals of France - the French army defeated at Dettingen in 1743 was commanded by the third Duke de Noailles. The family's links to the monarchy (one of the senior female members was a maid of honour to Marie Antoinette) ensured that it suffered during the French Revolution. Some members were executed and others were forced to emigrate. One of the grand-daughters of the fourth Duke escaped the guillotine only as a result of the personal intervention of the American ambassador, James Monroe - she was the wife of the Marquis de Lafayette.
The family's future misfortune could not have been imagined when young Louis Marc Antoine arrived in America in 1780 with Rochambeau's expedition, preceded by his friend and brother-in-law Lafayette. At this time, de Noailles appears to have been colonel of the Soissonnais regiment (at the age of 24). He participated in the siege of Yorktown and helped arrange the terms of Cornwallis' surrender. By all contemporary accounts, he was a brave, energetic and intelligent young man. Like the Marquis de Rostaing, de Noailles was elected to the Estates-General in 1789 and was at first a keen supporter of reform. However, the increasingly violent and extreme nature of the revolution persuaded him to leave the country, as he emigrated to the United States. There he became a partner in the Bank of North America in Philadelphia. This was the new nation's first central bank, given its charter by Congress in May 1781; it was liquidated in 1908. De Noailles seems to have grown bored with life as a banker as he accepted an offer to join the Vicomte de Rochambeau's expedition to Haiti (then called Sainte Domingue) in 1802. That expedition was intended to deal with the ongoing slave revolt on Haiti, but in May 1803 war broke out again between Britain and France and Rochambeau's force found itself in combat against a British squadron under Rear-Admiral Sir John Duckworth. De Noailles acquitted himself well in the ensuing battle, but while travelling to Cuba afterwards his ship was attacked by and English frigate and de Noailles was severely wounded. He died of his wounds in Havana on 9 January 1804.
De Noailles is painted here as a senior officer in the Soissonnais regiment, which had maroon facings. I haven't yet painted that regiment and it doesn't seem to feature in the "British Grenadier!" scenarios. As for de Noailles himself, in the published "British Grenadier!" scenarios he appear as a brigade commander in the Savannah scenario (with a "poor" rating, which seems a bit of a shame).
This is the Marquis de Rostaing, the first of a trio of French officers for the AWI who I'll be posting about each day from now to Monday. He is from the Perry Miniatures set AW148, "mounted French colonels", and I have painted each of the 3 figures as a specific individual.
Born on 24 November 1740, Rostaing was a page of Louis XV and joined the army in his late teens, joining the cavalry as a lieutenant. He then transferred to the infantry, becoming colonel of first the Auxerrois regiment and then the Gâtinais regiment in 1778. His service in the AWI and, in particular, during the Yorktown campaign earned him promotion to brigadier rank in 1781 and then to marechal de camp. After the war Rostaing, along with many senior military officers, was elected to the Estates-General of 1789, a meeting of France's three "estates" (i.e. the clergy, the nobility and the general populace), which was summoned by Louise XVI to help resolve France's financial problems. This blog is not the place to go into the how's and why's of the French Revolution, but the meeting of the Estates-General in May 1789 was not a success and the Third Estate, representing the commom people, broke off to form a National Assembly with a view to governing France. Two months later the Bastille was stormed. Rostaing may not have been a fervent revolutionary, but he was clearly a man who saw that things had to change. He served in the National Assembly and was appointed to the important Comité militaire which supervised the new Republic's military affairs. In 1792 he was promoted lieutenant general and seems to have retired soon afterwards. He died in 1826.
I have painted Rostaing as a colonel of the Gâtinais Regiment (which I painted in 2011 - see here), hence the purple facings. He remained colonel of the regiment until 1782, by which time it had been renamed the Royal-Auvergne regiment, as recognition for its heroics in taking Redoubt No.9 at Yorktown (the regiment eventually became the 18th Line). Rostaing and his regiment were present at Savannah and Yorktown, so at the former battle he would have been 39 years of age. This Perry sculpt looks about right for that age, I think. I will be using these three mounted officer figure for, in effect, brigade commanders. In the "British Grenadier!" scenario books Rostaing appears as a brigade commander in the Yorktown redoubts scenario (in the forthcoming 4th "British Grenadier!" scenario book from Caliver).
Bauduin was born on 25 January 1768 and joined the French army in September 1792 as a sous-lieutenant with the 59th Line. He was present at the siege of Toulon and fought with Napoleon's army in Italy, serving on the staff of General Herbin. Bauduin distinguished himself at the battles of Montebello and Marengo, where he was wounded, and was given command of a battalion for his troubles. He fought in the major campaigns of 1807-1809 and was created a Baron of the Empire in 1810, by which time he was colonel of the 93th Line. He was wounded again at Borodino but survived the retreat to be promoted to Général de Brigade rank in 1813. During the final campaigns prior to Napoleon's abdication, Bauduin commanded a brigade attached to the Young Guard. He was decorated by Louis XIV but re-joined Napoleon for the Hundred Days, which saw him in command of the 1st brigade of the 6th division in Reille's II Corps. It was in that position that he was mortally wounded while leading an attack on Hougoumont at Waterloo.
This sculpt of Bauduin was a freebie at this year's Partizan wargames show (and many thanks to John "Levied Troop" Francis for giving this to me). It's a nice little figure (sculpted by Bill Thornhill, I believe), although with minimal uniform detail so you have to paint on all the fancy general's braid. His companion is a light infantryman from Perry Miniatures. Bauduin's brigade consisted entirely of French light infantry (from the 1st and 2nd regiments). I don't know exactly how he died, but leading a charge seemed an appropriate use of this figure. I was going to have two infantrymen with him, but the base looked a little crowded so I stuck with just the one. It will be a good while until I get around to painting up this chap's brigade. Next up are a series of posts on more AWI French.
This is my second unit of American troops using the Perry plastic Continentals set. I have a finished third, a South Carolina regiment, but I need to sort the flag out. With each unit I've tried out a different set of hats. The first, the 10th Massachusetts, used round hats and the Carolinians wear peaked caps. These New Hampshire chaps have tricornes. I painted the 2nd New Hampshire almost 8 years ago and decided to paint the 3rd simply because I liked the look of the uniforms. The uniform leaflet in the Perry box shows this green coat and breeches outfit for the New Hampshire regiments and I thought it looked rather neat - it certainly makes a change from brown or dark blue coats. Online references include brown faced red coats (which were issued at the end of 1778) and even blue faced green, but I'll happily go with the Perry/Brendan Morrissey information, which I think works for the pre-November 1778 period. I particularly like the yellow coat of the drummer.
New Hampshire raised three infantry regiments in 1775 from the state's existing militia, which were quickly taken into the Continental line. Then, in November 1776, the regiments that had become the 5th, 8th and 2nd Continental Regiments reverted back into being the 1st to 3rd New Hampshire Regiments. The 3rd Regt saw heavy action during the Saratoga campaign and was present at Monmouth in 1778. The regiment was disbanded in January 1781.
The standard bearer is a Foundry metal figure, but all the others are Perry plastics. The green coats were painted with the Foundry palette "70 French Dragoon Green ". The reason why some of the figures are "march attack" and others are "marching casually" is simply because I wasn't paying attention when putting all the figures together! For the flag, I used one of my left over 2nd New Hampshire flags - in the relevant GMB pack you get a blue flag and a buff one, and I'd already used the former. Quindia Studios have a very nice 3rd New Hampshire flag which I should have used (had I spotted it earlier)!
I've just emerged from 4 of the most difficult weeks I've ever had at work, and posting has suffered as a result. I have a massive backlog of stuff now so I'm making a firm attempt to post at least twice a week. So coming up are lots and lots of AWI French and Napoleonic French generals. I've just finished the 2nd Continental Dragoons and currently on the workbench are the loyalist Emmerich's Chasseurs.